American Committee on East-West Accord (ACEWA)-227 Massachusetts Avenue, NE, Washington, D.C. 20002 (202/546-1700] is incorporated as a tax-exempt "independent educational organization" and says it is "aimed at improving East/West relations, with special focus on U.S.-Soviet relations." ACEWA and its leaders have consistently urged U.S. trade, foreign policy and arms control concessions to the USSR in order to promote "détente."
ACEWA's co-chairmen are Seyrnour Melman, 74, also co-chairman of SANE, who provided a strident attack on the concept of U.S. defense at a March 28, 1982 citizen conference sponsored by Rep. Ted Weiss (D4.Y.); and George F. Kennan, architect of the strategy of "containment" which in effect meant that the United States would not contest Soviet control of Eastern Europe) and who is presently organizing a campaign for a U.S. policy to never be the first to use nuclear weapons in any conflict. Another Kennan proposal being currently promoted by ACEWA s for the United States to immediately reduce its number of nuclear weapons by 50 percent.
ACEWA's co-directors are Jeanne Mattison and Carl M. Marcy, for 20 ears chief of staff of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee and hen a Ford Administration member of the General Advisory Committee on Arms Control. In 1976, Marcy was editor-in-chief of the Center for International Policy (CIP), and a member )f the CIP board of advisers.
ACEWA's newsletter, East-West Outlook, edited by Marcy, carries articles promoting extreme scare concepts such as that any use of nuclear weapons will bring total extinction of all life on earth and that it s therefore the responsibility of Americans to take the initiative in getting rid of nuclear weapons.
ACEWA's influence in the business and academic community is shown in a report on U.S. peace organizations prepared for potential donors in January 1982 by Ann B. Zill of the Stewart Mott Foundation. Zill wrote:
"In the late April to early May period, the Committee will have its annual meeting at some point when George Kennan, John Kenneth Galbraith, Don Kendall (Pepsi Cola) and Bob Schmidt (Control Data) can all attend. They will again discuss the...Kennan proposal and will hear from some high ranking government official, possibly off the record. The Committee does have to be careful about taking positions that would cause its conservative members to resign."
The Zill report noted that ACEWA had received two years' of funding from the Ford Foundation for a series of meetings with all the former ambassadors to the Soviet Union, but curiously "these probably won't be publicized."
Another current ACEWA project is the production of 60-second radio spots for broadcast during morning and evening "drive-time" periods. Zill reported these will vary in approach "from a soft sell approach (we all have common interests, don't we) to hard sell (do you know the Soviets have two aircraft to [our] 14)." Mark Lewis, formerly with the U.S. Information Agency (USIA), Zill reported, was working on the radio spots and "monies have been received to date from the Rockefeller Brothers and the Ruth Mott Fund."
In its newsletter, East-West Outlook, [March-April 1982, Vol. 5, No. 2], ACEWA boasts that among the 350 endorsers of the Kennedy-Hatfield Nuclear Freeze Resolution introduced in the Senate on March 10, 1982, are the following ACEWA members:
George Ball, Senior Managing Director, Lehman Brothers and former Under Secretary of State; Hodding Carter III, Public Broadcasting System, and former Assistant Secretary of State; Bernard T. Feld, chairman of the executive committee of the Pugwash Conferences, Professor of Physics, MIT, and editor, The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists; Joseph Filner, Noblenet International; Roger Fisher, Professor of Law, Harvard Law School, and former consultant to the Assistant Secretary of Defense for National Security; J. William Full-bright, former chairman, Senate Committee on Foreign Relations; Marshall Goldman, associate director, Russian Research Center and Professor of Economics, Wellesley College; Jerome Grossman, president, Council for a Liveable World; W. Averill Harriman, former U.S. Ambassador to the Soviet Union; Rev. Theodore Hesburgh, S.J., president, University of Notre Dame; Stanley Hoffman, Professor of Government and chairman, Center for European Studies, Harvard University; Townsend Hoopes, former Under Secretary of the Air Force; George F. Kennan, professor emeritus, Institute for Advanced Studies, Princeton, and former U.S. Ambassador to the Soviet Union and Yugoslavia; George Kistiakowsky, professor emeritus of chemistry, Harvard University, and former Science Advisor to Presidents Eisenhower, Kennedy and Johnson; Philip Klutz-nick, Former Secretary of Commerce; Wassily Leontief, Professor of Economics, New York University and Nobel Laureate; David Linebaugh, Foreign Service Officer (Ret.), and former Deputy Assistant Director of the U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency; Dr. Bernard Lown, Professor of Cardiology, Harvard School of Public Health and co-president, International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War (IPPNW); Carl Marcy, co-director, ACEWA; George McGovern, former U.S. Senator; Donald McHenry, professor, School of Foreign Service, Georgetown University, and former U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations; Dr. Avery Post, president, United Church of Christ; George Rathjens, Professor of Political Science, MIT, and former director of Weapons Systems Evaluation Division, Institute for Defense Analyses (IDA); Harrison Salisbury, Soviet Scholar and author; Erwin A. Salk, attorney; Herbert Scoville, Jr., former Deputy Director for Research and Assistant Director of Scientific Intelligence, Central Intelligence Agency, and Assistant Director, U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency; J. David Singer, Professor of National Security Studies, The Brookings Institution; Jeremy J. Stone, director, Federation of American Scientists; William P. Thompson, Stated Clerk, General Assembly, United Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A.; Jerome B. Wiesner, past president, M.I.T., and Science Adviser to President Kennedy; Adam Yarmolinsky, former counselor to the U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency; Herbert F. York, former U.S. negotiator for the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty.
American Friends Service Committee (AFSC)-1501 Cherry Street, Philadelphia, PA. 19102 [215/242-7000] was formed in 1917 by a group of 14 socialist Quakers to aid draft resisters. AFSC has been penetrated and used by Communists since the early 1920s when it sent Jessica Smith, who later married Soviet spies Harold Ware and John Abt (since the 1950s CPUSA general counsel and a member of the CPUSA Political Committee) to the Soviet Union to determine famine relief needs in Russia exacerbated by civil war and the collectivization of farmland.
Since the 1960s, the AFSC has supported revolutionary terrorist groups such as the Vietcong, Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), and the Central American Castroite groups. The theory behind AFSC's support of terrorist "national liberation movements" was outlined by Jim Bristol in a pamphlet published by AFSC in 1972 and continuously reprinted entitled "Non-violence: Not First for Export." Because of AFSC's leadership role in organizing support for terrorist revolutionary groups, but in the present disarmament campaign initiated through the USSR's covert action apparatus for political warfare, a closer look at AFSC's justification of violence is appropriate.
In the AFSC pamphlet, Bristol presents the totalitarian revolutionary goal in the most glowing terms as a utopia:
"a human society where the worth of the individual will be recognized and each person treated with respect....Land reform measures will be enacted....Education will be provided for every member of the -society;....There will be employment for all. Discrimination because of race, colour or creed will end. Universal medical care will be provided."
AFSC's pamphlet asserts that the United States and other Free World countries are guilty of a bizarre "terrorism" which it calls the "violence of the status quo" and irrationally defines this in the broadest possible terms not only as every possible social ill, but also personal or social discomfort. In the words of the pamphlet, this "violence of the status quo" is:
"the agony of millions who in varying degrees suffer hunger, poverty, ill-health, lack of education, non-acceptance by their fellow men. It is compounded of slights and insults, of rampant injustice, of exploitation, of police brutality, of a thousand indignities from dawn to dusk and through the night."
While most would define terrorism as "a violent attack on a non-combatant segment of the community for the purpose of intimidation, to achieve a political or military objective," AFSC's pamphlet excuses terrorism in the following terms:
"terrorism...repeatedly...is used to signify violent action on the part of oppressed peoples in Asia, Africa, Latin America or within the black ghettos of America, as they take up the weapons of violence in a desperate effort to wrest for themselves the freedom and justice denied them by the systems that presently control their lives. What is so easily (one suspects, often deliberately) overlooked is the fact that the regimes rebelled against are the incarnation of a greater violence than any used in the struggle against them.
"before we deplore terrorism, it is essential for us to recognize whose 'terrorism' came first....It is easy to recognize the violence of the revolutionary when he strikes out against the inequities and cruelties of the established order. What millions of middle-class and other non-poor fail to realize is that they are themselves accomplices each day in meeting [sic] out inhuman, all-pervading violence upon their fellows."
After this justification of the concept of class warfare, which makes "permissible" terrorist attacks on civilians since they are part of the "oppressive class," the AFSC pamphlet says that U.S. activists should not concern themselves with what sort of violent tactics revolutionaries utilize to achieve their ends. Instead, they should work to disarm the United States and for economic warfare against the U.S.'s "oppressive" allies. In its words:
"Instead of trying to devise nonviolent strategy and tactics for revolutionaries in other lands, we will bend every effort to defuse militarism in our own land and to secure the withdrawal of American economic investment in oppressive regimes in other parts of the world."
Following these justifications of terrorist violence by Third World "national liberation movements" in the United States and in foreign countries, the AFSC pamphlet concludes with a call for revolution in the United States, saying:
"Revolution then is needed first and foremost in the United States, thoroughgoing revolution, not a mild palliative."
Similar sentiments were expressed in an article in the March 1982 issue of Fellowship by Russell Johnson, Senior Program Associate of the NE Regional Office of the AFSC, and for many years its Peace Secretary. Describing his visits to Poland (1959), North Vietnam (1967), and Cuba (1969), he determined the North Vietnamese were "heroic people, small in stature, but magnificent in spirit... united...in a struggle to free their country from foreign domination;" stated that the fear of Communism by "the dominant interests in the United States...has little to do with issues of democracy and human rights, but much to do with private property and with access to mineral and petroleum resources and to cheap land and labor. Any nationalization of a country's wealth threatens these private, privileged interests."
Johnson also cited a Cuban telling him in 1969, "If you North Americans could go back to your own country and work to disarm it and to end its counter-revolutionary activity, then maybe we wouldn't have to carry weapons here in Cuba."
As a result of AFSC support for the Vietcong, the Philadelphia Meeting of the Society of Friends withdrew its financial support from the AFSC.
The AFSC worked in collaboration with the World Peace Council against U.S. aid to South Vietnam, sending "observers" to participate in WPC meetings. AFSC's six key program areas are disarmament (Terry Provance) and human rights; global justice (targeting South Korea and Central America); the Middle East (where the AFSC supports the cause of the terrorist Palestine Liberation Organization, PLO); Southern Africa (where AFSC supports the pro-Soviet terrorist movements in Namibia and South Africa); Indochina (supporting the pro-Soviet Hanoi government in Vietnam and its puppet regime in Cambodia); and opposing registration for a military draft.
The director of the AFSC's Disarmament Program since the revival of the international disarmament campaign in the mid-1970s has been Terry Provance, a WPC activist and founding member of the U.S. Peace Council (USPC) who is also a leader of the Mobilization for Survival (MFS) and is active with the World Information Service on Energy (WISE). Accompanied by two foreign Communist WPC activists, Nico Schouten, leader of the Netherlands "Ban the Neutron Bomb" organization, and East German Peace Council head Walter Rumpel, Provance addressed a MFS rally at the U.S. Capitol on October 29, 1979.
AFSC operates a lobbying arm, the Friends Committee on National Legislation (FCNL) headed by Ed Snyder, who has played a key role in developing strategy for pressure on Congress against the U.S. defense budget, and particularly against development or deployment of new weapons systems.
Another AFSC project, the National Action/Research on the Military/Industrial Complex (NARMIC), serves as the AFSC's "intelligence-gathering arm." NARMIC works closely with the Institute for Policy Studies (IPS), the North American Congress On Latin America (NACLA), a pro-Cuba research group, and other anti-defense and armament research organizations.
Arms Control Association (ACA)- operating from 11 Dupont Circle, Ninth Floor, Washington, D.C. 20036 [202/797-6450], with a 1982 budget of some $200,000, wields considerable influence through its "educational" programs that include 25 or more briefings annually. According to a report dated February 22, 1982 by Ann Zill of the Stewart Mott Foundation, ACA briefings are attended yearly by between 700 and 1,000 "academic and diplomatic people, government personnel and afficiandos [sic]."
ACA's leaders include William Kincaid and former CIA official Herbert "Pete" Scoville. Scoville served as the CIA's Assistant Director of Scientific Intelligence and as Deputy Director for Research, and later was Assistant Director of the U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency. He has been active with the Institute for Policy Studies (IPS) since the 1960s in anti-NATO and disarmament projects, and is an advisor to the Center for Defense Information (CDI). In January 1978, Scoville participated in the Washington, D.C. meetings of the WPC Bureau.
For 1982, ACA is sending "editorial advisories" to 1,000 medium to large newspapers in the United States on three issues: "How can a nuclear war start? What would the effects be? And how can one be prevented?" Prevention according to ACA means arms control agreements such as the rejected SALT II treaty in which the United States sends "signals" of peaceful intent to the USSR through major concessions.
Business Executives Move for New National Priorities (BEM)-was founded in 1967 as Business Executives Move for Peace in Vietnam by Henry Niles, then chairman of the board of Baltimore Life Insurance Company and father-in-law of New Left theoretician Staughton Lynd. BEM's name and targeting was changed in 1975, following the Communist conquest of South Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia.
BEM serves to mobilize businessmen who have commercial dealings with the Soviet Union and Warsaw Pact states for political action in favor of "détente," against U.S. defense modernization, and for a foreign policy of "non-intervention" against Soviet aggression.
Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament (CND)-is the largest "ban the bomb" movement in Great Britain formed as part of the drive for a nuclear test ban treaty in the late 1950s and early 1960s. As of 1982, seven members of the CND national committee were publicly known members of the British Communist Party. With strong backing from the left wing of the British Labour Party, the CND has revived as a key element in the present anti-NATO and anti-U.S. disarmament drive.
Center for Defense Information (CDI)-operating from Capitol Gallery, West Wing -303, 600 Maryland Avenue, SW., Washington, D.C. [202/484-0490] was formed in 1973 as a project of the tax-exempt Fund for Peace (FFP). CDI and its sister FFP projects-the Center for National Security Studies (CNSS) and the Center for International Policy (CIP)-are spin-offs from projects initiated by the Institute for Policy Studies (IPS), the Washington-based, internationally